Umar Asari

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Sajda e Sahw Kab Kiya Jaayega?

✵Sawaal✵
Assalamu Walaikum.

Namaz Me Sajda Sahu Kin Kin Surto Mein Wajib Ho Ga Aur Us Ka Sahi Tarika Kya ho Ga.

✪Jawaab✪
Walaikum Assalam Wa Rahmatullahi Wabarakatuhu

Shaikh Ibn e Uthaimeen Rahimahullah se sajda e sahw ke asbaab ke mutalliq sawaal kiya gaya to un ka jawab tha:
Namaz mein sajda e sahw ke ijmaali taur par teen asbaab hain:
1.
Ziyadah
2. Nuqsaan
3. Shak

Ziyadah: Masalan insaan Rukoo' ya Sajda ya phir qiyam ya baithne mein ziyadti kar de.

Nuqsaan: Masalan insaan kisi Rukn mein kami kar de ya phir namaz ke waajibaat mein se koi waajib naaqis rahe.

Shak: Namazi ko ada ki hue namaz mein taraddud ho ke kitni ada hue hai, teen ya chaar rak'aat.

Agar koi shakhs namaz mein jaan boojh kar Rukoo' ya Sajda ya Qiyam ziyadah kare ya ziyadah baar baith jaaye to us ki namaz baatil ho jaayegi kiunki us ne ziyadti ki hai, aur Allah Ta'ala aur us ke Rasool Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam ke bataaye huwe tareeqe ke alawah kisi aur tarah namaz ada ki hai; aur phir Rasool e Akram Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam ka farmaan bhi hai:
مَنْ عَمِلَ عَمَلًا لَيْسَ عَلَيْهِ أَمْرُنَا فَهُوَ رَدٌّ​
Tarjumah: Jis ne koi aisa amal kiya jis par hamara hukm nahi toh wo amal mardood hai.
(Sahih Muslim: 1718)

Lekin agar woh bhool kar namaz mein ziyadti kar le to us ki namaz baatil nahi hogi lekin salam ke baad sajda e sahw karna hoga, is ki daleel yeh hadees hai:
عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ قَالَ : صَلَّى بِنَا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ إِحْدَى صَلَاتَيِ الْعَشِيِّ - قَالَ ابْنُ سِيرِينَ : سَمَّاهَا أَبُو هُرَيْرَةَ، وَلَكِنْ نَسِيتُ أَنَا – قَالَ : فَصَلَّى بِنَا رَكْعَتَيْنِ، ثُمَّ سَلَّمَ فَقَامَ إِلَى خَشَبَةٍ مَعْرُوضَةٍ فِي الْمَسْجِدِ، فَاتَّكَأَ عَلَيْهَا كَأَنَّهُ غَضْبَانُ، وَوَضَعَ يَدَهُ الْيُمْنَى عَلَى الْيُسْرَى، وَشَبَّكَ بَيْنَ أَصَابِعِهِ، وَوَضَعَ خَدَّهُ الْأَيْمَنَ عَلَى ظَهْرِ كَفِّهِ الْيُسْرَى، وَخَرَجَتِ السَّرَعَانُ مِنْ أَبْوَابِ الْمَسْجِدِ، فَقَالُوا : قَصُرَتِ الصَّلَاةُ وَفِي الْقَوْمِ أَبُو بَكْرٍ، وَعُمَرُ فَهَابَا أَنْ يُكَلِّمَاهُ، وَفِي الْقَوْمِ رَجُلٌ فِي يَدَيْهِ طُولٌ يُقَالُ لَهُ : ذُو الْيَدَيْنِ، قَالَ : يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ، أَنَسِيتَ أَمْ قَصُرَتِ الصَّلَاةُ ؟ قَالَ : " لَمْ أَنْسَ وَلَمْ تُقْصَرْ ". فَقَالَ : " أَكَمَا يَقُولُ ذُو الْيَدَيْنِ ؟ " فَقَالُوا : نَعَمْ، فَتَقَدَّمَ فَصَلَّى مَا تَرَكَ، ثُمَّ سَلَّمَ، ثُمَّ كَبَّرَ وَسَجَدَ، مِثْلَ سُجُودِهِ أَوْ أَطْوَلَ، ثُمَّ رَفَعَ رَأْسَهُ وَكَبَّرَ ثُمَّ كَبَّرَ وَسَجَدَ، مِثْلَ سُجُودِهِ أَوْ أَطْوَلَ، ثُمَّ رَفَعَ رَأْسَهُ وَكَبَّرَ، فَرُبَّمَا سَأَلُوهُ، ثُمَّ سَلَّمَ فَيَقُولُ : نُبِّئْتُ أَنَّ عِمْرَانَ بْنَ حُصَيْنٍ قَالَ : ثُمَّ سَلَّمَ​
Tarjumah: Abu Hurairah Radhiallahu Anhu se riwayat hai, unhon ne kaha ke Rasoolullah Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam ne hamein dopahar ke baad ki do namaazon mein se koi Namaz padhaayi. (Zohr ya Asr ki) Ibn-e-Sireen ne kaha ke Abu Hurairah Radhiallahu Anhu ne us ka naam to liya tha. Lekin main bhool gaya. Abu Hurairah Radhiallahu Anhu ne batlaaya ke Aap Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam ne hamein do rakat Namaz padha kar salaam pher diya. Us ke baad ek lakdi ki laathi se jo Masjid mein rakhi hue thi Aap Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam tek laga kar khade ho gaye. Aisa ma’loom hota tha ke jaise Aap bahut hi khafa hon aur Aap Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam ne apne daayen haath ko baayen haath par rakha aur un ki ungliyon ko ek doosre main daakhil kiya aur Aap ne apne daayen rukhsaar-e-mubarak ko baayen haath ki hatheli se sahara diya. Jo log Namaz padh kar jaldi nikal jaaya karte the woh Masjid ke darwaazon se paar ho gaye. Phir log kehne lage ke kya Namaz kam kar di gayi hai. Haazireen mein Abu Bakr aur Umar (Radhiallahu Anhuma) bhi maujood the. Lekin unhein bhi Aap se bolne ki himmat na hue. Unhein main ek shakhs the jin ke haath lambe the aur unhein Zul-Yadain kaha jaata tha. Unhon ne poocha ya RasoolAllah! Kya Aap Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam bhool gaye ya Namaz kam kar di gayi hai. Aap Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam ne farmaaya ke na main bhoola hun aur na Namaz mein koi kami hue hai. Phir Aap Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam ne logon se poocha. Kya Zul-Yadain sahih keh rahe hain. Haazireen bole ke ji haan! Yeh sun kar Aap Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam aage badhe aur baaqi rak’atein padhein. Phir salaam phera phir takbeer kahi aur sahw ka sajdah kiya. Ma’mool ke mutabiq ya us se bhi lamba sajdah. Phir sar uthaaya aur takbeer kahi. Phir takbeer kahi aur doosra sajdah kiya. Ma’mool ke mutabiq ya us se bhi taweel phir sar uthaaya aur takbeer kahi, logon ne baar baar Ibn-e-Sireen se poocha ke kya phir salaam phera to woh jawaab dete ke mujhe khabar di gayi hai ke Imran bin Hussain kehte the ke phir salaam phera.
(Sahih Bukhari: 482, Sahih Muslim: 573)

Aur Ibn e Mas'ood Radhiallahu Anhuma bayan karte hain:
صَلَّى النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ الظُّهْرَ خَمْسًا، فَقَالُوا : أَزِيدَ فِي الصَّلَاةِ ؟ قَالَ : " وَمَا ذَاكَ ؟ " قَالُوا : صَلَّيْتَ خَمْسًا، فَثَنَى رِجْلَيْهِ وَسَجَدَ سَجْدَتَيْنِ​
Tarjumah: (Ek roz) Nabi Kareem Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam ne Zohr ki namaz mein paanch rak'at padha dein, (jab namaz se farigh huwe) to Sahaba ne arz kiya gaya: Kya namaz ziyadah kar di gayi hai? To Nabi Kareem Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam ne daryaft kiya ke kya huwa hai? Sahaba ne arz kiya: Aap ne paanch rak'atein padhaayi hain! Chunancha Nabi Kareem Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam ne apne paaon ikaththe kar ke (qibla rukh ho kar) do sajde kiye.
(Sahih Bukhari: 404, Sahih Muslim: 572)

Aur namaz mein kami aur nuqsaan ke mutalliq yeh hai ke agar insaan namaz ke Rukn mein kami kar de to yeh darj zail (following) halaton se khali nahi:
Ya to doosri rak'at mein usi jagah pahunchne se pehle use yaad aa jaaye to us waqt use wapas palat kar woh Rukn aur us ke baad ko mukammal karna lazim hoga.
Ya phir doosri rak'at mein usi jagah pahunch kar use yaad aaye, to is soorat mein us ki doosri rak'at us Rukn ke badle mein hogi jo us ne chor diya tha, chunancha woh us ke badle ek rak'at aur ada karega, in dono halaton mein salam ke baad sajda sahw kiya jaayega.

Is ki misaal yeh hai:
Ek shakhs pehli rak'at mein ek sajda karne ke baad uth khada huwa na to baitha aur na hi doosra sajda kiya, aur jab qirat karna shuru kiya to use yaad aaya ke na to woh dono sajdon ke darmiyaan baitha hai, aur na hi us ne doosra sajda kiya hai, to us waqt woh wapas palat kar dono sajdon ke darmiyaan baithe aur phir sajda kar ke apni baaqi namaz mukammal kare, aur salam ke baad sajda e sahw karega.

Aur doosri rak'at mein usi jagah pahunch kar yaad aane waale ki misaal yeh hai ke:
Pehli rak'at mein woh ek sajde ke baad uth khada huwa aur doosra sajda na kiya aur na hi dono sajdon ke darmiyaan baitha, lekin use yaad us waqt aaya jab woh doosri rak'at mein dono sajdon ke darmiyan baitha, to us haalat mein us ki doosri rak'at pehli rak'at shumaar hogi, aur woh apni namaz mein ek rak'at ziyadah ada kar ke salam pherne ke baad sajda e sahw karega.

Aur kisi wajib mein kami hone ki soorat yeh hai ke:
Chunancha agar kisi wajib mein kami reh jaaye aur us ki jagah se use agli jagah muntaqil kar de, is ki misaal yeh hai:
Masalan woh sajde mein «سُبْحَانَ رَبِّيَ الأَعْلَى» bhool jaaye, aur sajde se sir uthaane ke baad yaad aaye to us ne bhool kar namaz ke waajibaat mein se ek waajib chor diya, chunancha woh apni namaz jaari rakhega aur salam pherne se pehle sajda e sahw karega, kiunki jab Nabi Kareem Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam ne pehle tashahhud ko chor diya tha to apni namaz jaari rakhi thi aur wapas nahi baithe, aur unhon ne salam pherne se pehle sajda e sahw kiya tha.

Aur shak ziyadti aur nuqsaan (kami) mein taraddud ko kehte hain. Is ki misaal yeh hai:
Aaya us ne teen rak'at ada ki ya chaar, is soorat ki do halatein hain:
Ya to use ziyadah ya nuqsaan mein se koi ek raajeh lagega; to jo use raajeh maloom ho us par namaz ki bina kar ke namaz mukammal kare, aur salam pherne ke baad sajda e sahw kare.

Ya phir us ke nazdeek nuqsaan (kami) aur ziyadti mein se koi bhi raajeh nahi hoga; to use yaqeen par amal karna chaahiye jo ke kam rak'aat hain, us par woh apni namaz mukammal karte huwe salam se pehle sajda e sahw karega.

Is ki misaal yeh hai ke:
Ek shakhs ne Zohr ki namaz ada ki aur teesri rak'at mein use shak huwa ke woh teesri rak'at mein hai ya chauthi mein? Aur us ke nazdeek teesri rak'at raajeh thehri to woh ek rak'at ada kar ke salam pher kar sajda e sahw kar le.

Aur agar dono cheezein barabar hon to us ki misaal yeh hai ke:
Ek shakhs Zohr ki namaz ada kar raha hai aur use shak huwa ke yeh teesri rak'at hai ya chauthi? Aur us ke nazdeek yeh raajeh nahi ke yeh teesri rak'at hai ya chauthi; to woh yaqeen par bina (aitemaad) kare yani kam rak'aat par aur use teesri rak'at banaate huwe chauthi rak'at ada kar ke salam pherne se pehle sajda e sahw kar le.

Is se yeh maloom huwa ke agar koi waajib reh jaye, ya phir rak'aat ki tadaad mein shak ho aur dono mein se kuch raajeh na ho to sajda e sahw salam se pehle kiya jaayega.
Aur namaz mein kuch ziyadtu ho gayi ya phir shak ki soorat mein dono wajhon mein se ek raajeh ho to sajda e sahw salam ke baad kiya jaayega.
(Dekhen: Majmoo' ul Fataawa Ash-Shaikh Ibn e Uthaimeen (14/14-16)
واللہ اعلم​

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