Umar Asari

Administrator
Staff member
Network marketing ka shar’ee hukm

Tehreer: Shaikh Maqbool Ahmad Salafi Hafizahullah

Romanised By: Umar Asari

Aaj ke taraqqi yaafta (advanced) daur mein tijaarat ki mukhtalif shaklein raaij hain un mein network marketing bhi hai. Isey network marketing is liye kaha jaata hai ke is mein har member ko member banaana padta hai, is tarah members ki ta’dad badhti chali jaati hai, is soorat ko network yani jaal se ta’beer kiya gaya hai, jaal jaisi tijaarat. Isey multi level marketing bhi kehte hain kiunki is mein har member ko company ki shart ke mutabiq member banaana hota hai jis se mukhtalif level bante hain masalan kisi shakhs ne do member banaaya phir un dono ne do do member banaaye, is tarah pehle level mein hum dekhte hain ek aadmi hai phir doosre level mein do aadmi hain aur teesre level mein chaar aadmi ho gaye. Is tarah level bante chale jaate hain, level ki wajah se multi level marketing kaha jaata hai.
Islam ne musalmaanon ko halaal tareeqe se tijaarat karne ka hukm diya aur halaal tijaarat ke khadd-o-khaal bhi hamaare liye wazeh kar diye jis mein jhoot, dhoka, loot maar, ghaban (khayanat), sood khoori, kaala bazaari, haraam kaari, qimaar baazi (juwr baazi) waghera ki bilkul bhi gunjaish nahi hai, hamein halaal tareeqe se Mubaah (jaaiz) cheezon ki tijaarat ka hukm diya gaya hai.
Network marketing fard (akele aadmi), mu’aashrah (society) aur qaum-o-millat ki tabaahi ke saath shar’ee taur par kayi khaamiyon ko shaamil hai. Kehne ko yeh tijaarat hai magar haqeeqat mein tijaarat ke naam par qimaar baazi (juwe) ka ek aisa khel hai jis mein kam paise aur kam waqt mein ziyada se ziyada kamaane ki hawas (lalach) hai. Har member hawas ka shikaar ho kar member banta hai, koi khud se nahi aata balke aksar apno ki wajah se phanste hain. Jab koi member banta hai to doosre ko member banaane ke liye charb zubaani (meethi meethi baatein karna, chaaploosi), company ki bila wajah ta’reef, tijaarat ka dikhaawa, jhoot aur fareb de kar baar baar zehan ko torture kar ke ek tarah se zabardasti company mein shaamil kiya jaata hai. Ek lafz mein yeh kahen ke baaton mein phansa kar aur sabz baagh (lalach aur jhoote waade) dikha kar member banaaya jaata hai, duniya ki aur kisi tijaarat mein is tarah baaton mein nahi phansaaya jaata hai. Islam mein khareed-o-farokht ke liye door door tak is tarah ki tijaarat ka namoona nahi milta.
Aaiye dekhte hain kya multi level marketing waqa’ee tijaarat hai? Aur kya Islaami Shari’at ki roshni mein is mein shumooliyat (shaamil hone) ki hamaare liye gunjaish hai?
Yeh company waaqi’atan samaan bechti hai, jo us ka member banta hai use company ka samaan khareedna hota hai. Ab yahan sawaal yeh paida hota hai ke ek shakhs ko samaan khareedne ki zaroorat hai to us ka member kiun banta hai aur us ke zimma doosron ko laazmi taur par member banaane ki shart kiun lagaayi jaati hai? Aur agar company ko apne product ki tijaarat ke liye mulazim (servant) chahiye to mulazim ko hi samaan kiun farokht kiya jaata hai? Market rate se kayi guna mahenga samaan bhi member is liye khareedta hai kiunki us company se judna chaahta hai warna jud nahi sakta. Aksar samaan bhi member ke kaam ka nahi hota magar kam waqt mein ziyada paise kamaane ki hawas (lalach) mein ghair zaroori samaan bhi bardaasht karta hai. Misaal ke taur par maan lete hain ek shakhs member bana to taqreeban bees (20) samaan khareed mein mila, un bees (20) mein se das (10) kaam ke nahi hain. Zara andaza lagaayen baaqi das (10) samaan ki qeemat market se kayi guna aur bila-zaroorat khareed kis qadar nuqsaan ka baa’is hai? Agar company se pachaas hazaar (50000) aadmi bhi jude hon to itne logon ke nuqsaan ki min-jumla (total) maaliyat (qeemat) karodon mein hogi magar members mein is ka ehsaas tak nahi hota, agar kuch ehsaas hota bhi hoga to commission ki lalach mein zabaan par khamoshi ka pehra laga hoga.
Is pas-e-manzar (background) se ma’loom hota hai ke us company ka maqsad ya us ke kisi member ka maqsad tijaarat karna nahi hota. Us company ka samaan khule aam market mein nahi becha jaata, sirf members hi khareed kar sakte hain.
Us company mein member saazi (members add karna) kaafi khatarnaak mu’aamla hai, poore shahar ke logon ko yarghamaal (qaidi) banaaya jaata hai. Yeh sara-sar ziyaadti hai. Aap ke paas company hai ya aap kisi company se jude hain to apni company aur us ki tijaarat ka mabni barhaq (haqq ke saath) ta’aruf (introduction) kara den magar laffazi (baatein bana kat) aur charb zabaani ke zariye kisi par dabaao na banaayen.
Us company mein mazeed kayi khaamiyaan aur nuqsanaat hain. Us ki sab se badi sachchaayi yeh hai ke us company ko istimraar haasil nahi hai (matlab hamesha nahi rehne waali hai) kiunki us ki hayaat (yani us ki zindagi aur us ka baaqi rehna) member saazi (members jodne) pe mauqoof (depend) hai jis shahar mein members ka quota full ho jaaye ya member saazi (members add karne) ka silsila munqate’ (khatm) ho jaaye to yeh company us ke baad deewaliyaa (loss) ka shikaar ho jaayegi aur phir us ka zimmedaar logon ka saara maal le kar faraar ho jaayega jaisa ke bahut saare shehron mein aisa haadsa ho chuka hai aur hukumati paimaane par mukhtalif countries mein aisi companies ke khilaaf karwaayi ki gayi hai. Har member ka munafa’ (profit) member saazi se hi aata hai, zara hisaab lagaayen ke pehli baar jab koi member banta hai us waqt us ko samaan khareed kar nuqsaan hi hota hai mazeed koi munafa’ nahi milta, munafa’ us waqt milna shuru hoga jab members ki matlooba ta’dad aur matlooba sharaait poori karega, us level ke saare members pehli baar nuqsaan uthaate hain, phir shuru ke level mein munafa’ ziyada aur baad mein aane waalon ko kam milta hai kiunki shuru waalon ki wajah se members badhte hain lehaza badhne waale saare members ka munafa’ shuru waalon ko bhi jaata hai. Jahan company ka level mukammal ho jaaye to aakhiri level waale munafe’ se mehroom honge kiunki woh mazeed member banaane se qaasir (mehroom) hain aur aakhiri level mein members hazaaron ki ta’dad mein hote hain jabki shuru ka level do chaar sau (200, 400) ke aas paas hoga. Is tarah aakhiri marhale mein hazaaron ki ta’dad mein log member bante hain aur karodon ka nuqsaan uthaate hain balke jo members charb zabaan aur laffaaz na hon aur member na bana saken woh bhi munafa’ se mehroom hote hain. Goya kuch logon ko munafa’ milta hai aur badi ta’dad mein log munafa’ se mehroom rehte hain balke nuqsaan uthaate hain.
Network marketing ke ta’aruf aur khatraat par mushtamil tamheedi baaton ke baad ab neeche is marketing mein paayi jaane waali shar’ee buraaiyaan aap ke saamne bayan karta hun taake aap bhi is se bachen aur doosron ko bhi is se bachaayen aur mehnat-o-amal ki bunyaad par halaal tareeqe se khud bhi rozi kamaayen aur doosron ko bhi us ki naseehat karen.
Pehli khaami:
Daulat ki ghair munsifaana taqseem:
Jis tarah sarmaayadaraana nizaam (capitalism) mein daulat chand logon ki muththi mein simat jaati hai usi tarah is tijaarat mein bhi shuru ke chand members ke haathon daulat simat jaati hai aur aakhir ke kayi marhalon mein ya to sire se nuqsaan hota hai, ya munafa’ nahi milta ya bilkul ma’mooli faida hota hai jabki shuru ke kuch members un nuqsanaat se mehfooz hote hain halaanki saare level mein mehnat-o-amal ke jitna aitedaal aur tawazun hona chahiye tha. Islaami nizaam-e-ma’eeshat (Islamic Economic System) ki khoobi hai ke us mein sarmaayadaraana nizaam (capitalism) ki tarah na daulat ki ghair munsifaana taqseem hai aur na hi ishtiraakiyat (socialism) ki tarah masaawaat (baraabri) ka na-qaabil-e-qabool dawa balke Islam in dono ke beech logon ke darmiyaan adl ke saath aitedaal aur tawazun qaayim karta hai. Allah ﷻ ka farmaan hai:
كَيْ لَا يَكُونَ دُولَةً بَيْنَ الْأَغْنِيَاءِ مِنكُمْ​
Tarjumah: Taake tumhaare daulat-mandon ke haath mein hi maal gardish karta na rahe.
(Surah Al-Hashr, Surah No: 59, Ayat No: 7)

Doosri khaami:
Masnoo’aat ka irtikaaz:
Yeh company apni masnoo’aat ko aam logon par pesh nahi karti balke sirf members ke daaire (circle) tak mehdood rakhti hai. Yeh ek tarah irtikaaz ke zumre mein daakhil hai. Samaan ko gharon mein jama kar ke rakhna aur market ka bhaao ziyada hone par bechna Islam mein mana hai, is soorat mein aur network marketing ki soorat mein mumasilat (mushaabihat) nazar aati hai. Nabi ﷺ ka farmaan hai:
لَا يَحْتَكِرُ إِلَّا خَاطِئٌ​
Tarjumah: Sirf gunehgaar hi Zakheera andozi karta hai.
(Sahih Muslim: 1605)

Zamaana-e-jaahiliyat mein jab koi dehaati (villager) shahar mein tijaarat karne aata to kuch taajir saara maal khareed lete aur logon ko baraah-e-raast (direct) un se nahi khareedne dete halaanki yeh samaan phir shahar mein becha jaata magar un shehri taajiron ke haathon mahenge daamon mein, to Nabi ﷺ ne is se mana farmaaya:
عَنْ أَنَسٍ، أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ نَهَى أَنْ يَبِيعَ حَاضِرٌ لِبَادٍ، وَإِنْ كَانَ أَبَاهُ أَوْ أَخَاهُ​
Tarjumah: Hazrat Anas Radhiallahu Anhu se riwayat hai ke Nabi-e-Akram ﷺ ne mana farmaaya ke koi shehri kisi dehaati ka maal beche, agarche woh us ka baap ya bhai ho.
(Sunan Nasai: 4492, Allama Albani Rahimahullah ne Sahih kaha hai)

Jab yeh soorat mana hai to masnoo’aat (cheezon ko) chand logon mein mehdood karna kaise sahih hoga?

Teesri khaami:
Bay (sale) ko mashroot (conditional) karna:
Us company se jo koi cheez khareedta hai aur woh istilaah mein ek khareedaar kehlaata hai, usoolan us ki sale paisa de kar samaan khareedne se mukammal ho gayi magar us company mein khareed-o-farokht ka mu’aamla mashroot hota hai. Jab koi us company se kuch khareedta hai to us ke zimme yeh shart hoti hai ke woh itne member banaaye aur usey member saazi (members add karne) par munafa’ aur commission milega. Nabi ﷺ ne ek saude mein koi doosra mu’aamla tay karne se mana kiya hai. Hazrat Abu Hurairah Radhiallahu Anhu bayan karte hain:
نَهَى رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ عَنْ بَيْعَتَيْنِ فِي بَيْعَةٍ​
Tarjumah: Rasoolullah ﷺ ne ek saude main do saudon se mana farmaaya.
(Sunan Tirmizi: 1231, Allama Albani Rahimahullah ne Sahih kaha hai)

Isi tarah Aap ﷺ ka farmaan hai:
وَلَا شَرْطَانِ فِي بَيْعٍ​
Tarjumah: Aur na ek bay mein do shartein jaaiz hain.
(Sunan Abi Dawood: 3504, Allama Albani Rahimahullah ne Hasan Sahih kaha hai)

Bay (sale) mein do shart ki misaal yeh hogi ke bechne waala kahe ke main yeh samaan tumhein is shart par bechunga ke tumhein falaan kaam bhi karna padega. Yeh soorat network marketing mein paayi jaati hai.

Chauthi khaami:
Dhoka dena aur nuqsaan pahunchaana:
Islaami tijaarat mein dhoka dena mana hai aur isi tarah kisi ko tijaarat ke zariye lootna bhi sakht mana hai. Jab ki is tijaarat mein hukumat se le kar members tak ko mukhtalif tareeqe se dhoka diya jaata hai aur baatil tareeqe se maal loot kar unhein nuqsaan pahunchaaya jaata hai. Tijaarat to hukumat aur awaam ki nazar mein ek dikhaawa hai. Nabi ﷺ ka farmaan hai:
لَا ضَرَرَ وَلَا ضِرَارَ​
Tarjumah: Na to kisi ko nuqsaan do, aur na hi nuqsaan uthaao.
(Sunan Ibn-e-Majah: 2341, Allama Albani Rahimahullah ne Sahih Li-Ghairihi kaha hai)

Sayyiduna Abu Hurairah Radhiallahu Anhu se riwayat hai:
نَهَى رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ عَنْ بَيْعِ الْحَصَاةِ، وَعَنْ بَيْعِ الْغَرَرِ​
Tarjumah: Rasoolullah ﷺ ne kankari ki bay se aur dhoke ki bay se mana kiya hai.
(Sahih Muslim: 1513)

Aur Allah ﷻ ka farmaan hai:
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَأْكُلُوا أَمْوَالَكُم بَيْنَكُم بِالْبَاطِلِ إِلَّا أَن تَكُونَ تِجَارَةً عَن تَرَاضٍ مِّنكُمْ​
Tarjumah: Aye imaan waalo! Aapas mein ek doosre ka maal na-haqq mat khaao lekin koi tijaarat ho jo baahami razamandi se waaqe’ ho.
(Surah An-Nisa, Surah No:4, Ayat No: 29)

Yahan tijaarat ka jo dikhaawa hai woh logon ko laffazi ka shikaar bana kar hai, razamandi ka pehlu mafqood (ghaib) hai.

Paanchwen khaami:
Qimaar baazi:
Jis tarah log juwa mein paisa laga kar haar aur jeet ki ummeed aur khauf ke darmiyaan hote hain usi tarah yahan bhi mu’aamla hota hai. Sasti cheez mahenge daamon mein khareed kar future mein commission aur munafa’ ki ummeed hoti hai. Kya pata member bana paayega ke nahi aur banaayega bhi to kis miqdaar mein? Is tarah to apna maal daao par lagaana huwa bilkul juwa ki tarah. Allah ﷻ ne lafz “Al-Maisir” (Surah Al-Maaidah, Surah No: 5, Ayat No: 90) ke zariye juwa ko haraam qaraar diya. Yeh “Maisir” yusr se hai yani juwa mein aadmi ko aasani se, kam mehnat aur kam waqt mein ziyada kamaayi ki ummeed hoti hai wahi ummeed is network marketing mein nazar aati hai.

Chhatti khaami:
Baghair amal munafa’:
Is mein shar’ee taur par ek badi khaami yeh hai ke aadmi apne taur par sirf pehle level par chand member banaata hai jabki us ka munafa’ mahez is wajah se chaalu rehta hai ke us ke banaaye huwe members doosron ko member banaate hain. Pehle level mein mehnat aur amal ki ujrat aur munafa’ ko ma’qool (theek) kaha jaa sakta hai magar doosre level mein doosron ki member saazi (members add karne) ka munafa’ ghair ma’qool hai. Munafa’ ki jaaiz teen suratein banti hain:
Ya to hum ne karobaar mein raqm lagaayi ho aur mehnat bhi karte hon, yeh shirkat hai
Ya sirf raqm lagaayi ho mehnat koi doosra kare, yeh Muzaribat hai
Ya baghair raqm ke mehnat karte hon isey ijaarah yani mazdoori kehte hain.
Is tijaarat mein member apna paisa laga kar samaan khareed leta hai is wajah se shirkat aur Muzaribat ki shakl nahi paayi jaati, rahi mehnat aur mazdoori to ek member mehdood level tak mehnat karta hai magar munafa’ baad ke tamaam levels se mlite hain. Is liye yeh shari’at mein jaaiz nahi hai.

Saatwen khaami:
Heela waali tijaarat:
Upar wazeh kiya gaya hai ke is company ka maqsad tijaarat bilkul nahi, us ke ta’arufi pamphlet se bhi bakhoobi andaza lagaaya jaa sakta hai jis mein tijaarat ke mutalliq chand lines aur members add karne ke commission par safhaat dar safhaat (kayi pages) likhe gaye hote hain. Yahi wajah hai ke is tijaarat mein ghair zaroori cheezien farokht (bechi) ki jaati hain woh bhi aam logon se chhupa kar sirf members mein aur market se kayi guna mahenge daamon par. Is tarah heela kar ke masnoo’aat (cheezien) bechna bhi mana hai. Hazrat Ibn-e-Umar Radhiallahu Anhuma se marwi hai:
أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ نَهَى عَنِ النَّجْشِ​
Tarjumah: Nabi-e-Akram ﷺ ne heele ke saath bhaao badhaane se mana farmaaya hai.
(Sunan Nasai: 4505, Allama Albani Rahimahullah ne Sahih kaha hai)

Is market mein yeh upar zikr ki gayi shar’ee khaamiyaan mujhe nazar aati hain is wajah se kisi musalmaan ke liye aisi company chalaana ya aisi company mein shaamil hona jaaiz nahi hai.
Kuch members yeh kehte hain ke jab Islam mein dalaali ki ujrat jaaiz hai to yahan members banaane ka commission kiun nahi jaaiz hai?
Is baat ka jawab chhatti khaami mein mulahza kar sakte hain ke members banaane mein kis hadd tak hamaare liye munafa’ ka haqq banta hai?
Ek doosra ishkaal yeh paida kiya jaata hai ke member hazraat pehle level ke alawah bhi doosre logon par mehnat karte hain, un ka marketing haal daryaaft karte hain, contacts rakhte hain aur achcha sujhaao (suggestions) bhi dete hain.
Is ishkaal ka jawab yeh hai ke shuru waale members baad waale members se contact karen ya na karen commission maujood hota hai goya yeh contacts koi ma’ne nahi rakhte.
Kuch members kehte hain ke company hamein in’aam ke taur par faida deti hai to yeh kaha jaa sakta hai ke in’aam tasalsul ke saath tay shudah munafa’ ke naam par hargiz nahi ho sakta.
Kuch log yeh heela (bahaana) banaate hain ke shuru waale member baad waalon ke liye zariya bante hain, us zariya ki wajah se musalsal munafa’ milta hai to kya harj hai?
Harj to hai kiunki maali faaide ka Islam ne me’yaar banaaya hai jis ka zikr upar kiya gaya hai is liye Islam ke me’yaar se hat kar profit aur faaida lene ka jawaaz nahi nikal sakta.
 
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